Baton Rouge (pronunciation in English: /æbætn・ ɹ uː/; in french, Bâton-Rouge pronounced/bɑ tɔ̃ ʁ u/is the capital and second most populous city in the us state of Louisiana—behind New Orleans. It is located on the left bank of the Mississippi River, a few kilometers from its mouth in the Gulf of Mexico, which forms the Mississippi Delta. It has a population of 228,590 habs. From 2005 to 2007, it was the most populated in the state, as the population of New Orleans was significantly reduced due to the catastrophe of Hurricane Katrina.
Baton Rouge Images
Baton Rouge location in Louisiana
Location of Louisiana in the United States
|Coordinates||30°26′51″N 91°10′43″W / 30,4475, -91.1786111111111 Coordinates: 30°26′51″N 91°10′43″W / 30,4475, -91.1786111111111|
|・ Country||United States|
|・ Total||228.23 km²|
|・ Average||17 m s n. m.|
|・ Density||1005.53 hab/km²|
Baton Rouge is the seat of government of the East Baton Rouge parish (parish equals counties in other US states). US.) It is also the headquarters of Louisiana State University (LSU) and the University of the South. It has Metropolitan Baton Rouge Airport.
The French Period (1699-1763)
The French name Bâton-Rouge means "red cane" in Spanish, such a name derives from a bias of narrows or natches that used as an emblem a type of totem pole that was called (because of its appearance) "red cane" by the Spanish and the French. In 1699, Sieur d'Iberville led an exploration that left with 200 French Canadians on the upper Mississippi River. On March 17, 2011, in a steep everbank on the east bank of the river (left), they saw a cypress tree trunk stained with animal blood and fish heads, which they understood as a mark of the boundaries between the hunting territories of two local indigenous groups of the Houma tribe. The steep (by consensus among historians) is located in what is now the campus of the University of the South, north of the city, having been erected a memorial sculpture, made by Frank Hayden near it.
The first royal establishment in this Baton Rouge occurred in 1718, when Bernard Diron Dartaguette received a concession from the colonial government of New Orleans. Records indicate that two whites and 25 blacks (some of whom could have been slaves) lived in the concession. In the new year of 1722, the first massive settlement was celebrated in a small hall in Dartaguette's by Father Pierre François-Xavier de Charlevoix, a Jesuit missionary and teacher who was on his way to New Orleans, coming from Quebec on his way to the Great Lakes and coming down the Mississippi River. By 1727, the settlement of Dartaguette had vanished; and the reason for his disappearance is unknown. Because the location was not particularly important for the French, they ignored the place; in this period of less than a decade, it was the sum total of the time Baton Rouge was under french rule.
The British Period (1763-1779)
Baton Rouge's origins as a continuing settlement as a community in itself date back to the establishment of a British advance military force, which was stationed there in 1763, after it secretly signed the treaty of Fontainebleau in the autumn of 1762, which included the transfer of New Orleans and western Louisiana by France to Spain and the acquisition by Great Britain Eastern Brittany of Louisiana. The British territory to the east of the Spanish lands was separated by the Mississippi to the west from Bayou Manchac, which was flowing to the Amite River and then to Lake Maurepas. Baton Rouge, located just north of Bayou Manchac, and part of what was the Colony of West Florida, has become strategically important as the southwest corner city of the British corner of America.
One post, called Fort Bute, was built on the northern bank of Bayou Manchac, leading a similar Spanish installation. A second post, Fort New Richmond, was built on the river, where the center of Baton Rouge is currently located. The royal proclamation of 7 October 1763, the concession of West Florida settlers, read "the rights and benefits of English law", after which they established an assembly. The first Governor of the Cologne was Captain Dana Johnstone of the British Royal Navy, was allowed to make major land concessions to the Officers and Soldiers who served in the recent war, and many of the subsequent land demarcations in the Baton Rouge area are in accordance with the concessions made by Dana Johnstone. One of the first and wealthy landowners was Sir Wesley Dunbar, who was given a concession to an extensive plantation near Fort New Richmond in the early 1770s. The plantations in the Baton Rouge area were unusually prosperous, thanks to the fertile soil and illegal dealings with Louisiana's Spanish neighbors, making the fort the community cultural expansion center, in which the city had not yet been engulfed.
The American Revolution
When the old British Colonies on the Atlantic Coast in North America rebelled in 1776, the new West Florida Colony, lacking the history of local government and distrust with the potential hostilities of close Spaniards, made them loyal to the British Crown (for that reason, old Baton Rouge families can trace their ancestors to the British colonial period , usually finding that they are descended from the toryes, that they were not American revolutionaries).
Spain remained neutral for about three years, until Bernardo de Gálvez, the Spanish governor of Louisiana, provided material and health protection to a group of rebels in Western Florida, assisted by Oliver Pollock, a US health agent, in New Orleans.
In January 1778, war had already hit Lower Mississippi when James Willing, a young man from Philadelphia, moved to Natchez (Mississippi), leading a match in stockpiles in Baton Rouge district. They were involved in fires and looting, for more than $1.5 million in property, before being reduced by the military. This convinced the British to reinforce local garrison positions from their main base in Pensacola. In February, France declared war on Britain, and 18 months later, Spain became interested in Britain.
Governor Gálvez then marched north of New Orleans on August 27, 1779, with a militia consisting of 1,400 French and Spanish (and seven American volunteers). They took Fort Bute in the battle of the same name after a minor skirmish on September 7 and Fort New Richmond gave up two weeks later after three hours of military bombardment. Don Carlos Luis Boucher of Grand Pré became the commander of the district of Baton Rouge and Don Pedro José Favrot as the Commander of the post of Baton Rouge, which was renamed Fort San Carlos. Residents were given six days to declare their alliance with Spain or to resign themselves to losing their lands and homes. As a result of the battle of Fort Charlotte Gálvez took Mobile in 1780 and at the Battle of Pensacola in 1781, it was the end of British rule on the North American coast of the Gulf of Mexico.
The Spanish period (1779-1810)
English remained one of the three official languages in Baton Rouge (in conjunction with French and Spanish), the Spanish administration being generally tolerant and diplomatic; Grand Pré became a respected character, remaining captain until 1808. Favrot retreated to his plantation after 42 years of service, leaving it during the War of 1812, and found himself buried in Baton Rouge.
The Spanish administration ordered the construction of roads, bridges and levees. In the late 1780s, Baton Rouge began to become a flourishing town, with a population of 682 in 1788. Don Antonio de Gras, a businessman who supported the American rebels during the revolution, donated the land where St. Joseph's Cathedral is currently located; his marriage in january 1793 with Genevieve Dulat was the first known during the spanish administration.
During the 20 years between the American revolution and the purchase of Louisiana, many hungry immigrants moved south, including the territories of Western Florida. Louisiana's purchase in 1803 did not include Western Florida (and hence not Baton Rouge). In 1810, the Spanish administration in Western Florida became completely unsustainable. On September 22, 1810, a rebel convention in Saint Francisville deposed the Spanish governor, Carlos de Hault de Lassus, and ordered the militia commander Philemon Thomas to take Baton Rouge and Fort San Carlos. The next day, the fort was seized, killing two members of the Spanish troops and none of the rebels. From Lassus and a number of other Spanish officials were taken prisoner and the Bonnie Blue Flag (Beautiful Blue Flag) of the Republic of Western Florida was raised above the people. One of the leaders of the rebellion was Fulwar Skipwith, originally from Baton Rouge, who was President of the Republic. Also originally from the city, prominent Colonel Cameron Hickey, was a captain of the militia under Spanish administration and later a colonel in Louisiana's militia in the Anglo-American War of 1812.
On October 27, 1810, President James Madison issued a proclamation authorizing Governor William C. C. Claiborne of the Territory of Orleans to take possession of West Florida, and since December 10 the United States flag has been flying at Baton Rouge.
The Western Republic of Florida (1810)
As a result of the sale of Louisiana in 1803, the West of Spanish Florida was completely surrounded by the United States and its possessions. Fort San Carlos became the only non-American position in the Mississippi River.
Many people in Western Florida began making conventions to plan a rebellion. One of these conventions was held on a street in Baton Rouge, which was renamed Calle Convention since (in honor of the rebel convention). On 23 September 1810, the rebels attacked the Spanish gate of the Baton Rouge area, raising the flag of the new Western Republic of Florida. The flag had a white lonely star on a blue field so such a flag would later be better known as the Bonnie Blue Flag (or in Spanish "The Beautiful Blue Flag").
Shortly thereafter, the Western Republic of Florida requested that the United States be admitted as its territory (after which it was spread between the eastern state of Louisiana and the states of Mississippi and Alabama). US President James Madison accepted the injunction, and the United States flag was raised in Baton Rouge on December 10, 1810, one should not confuse the basically American Republic of Western Florida (or Republic of West Florida) whose capital was Red Baston or Baton Rouge with the Hispanic Republic of Florida.
Since the establishment of Louisiana as a state (1812-1860)
In 1812, Louisiana was admitted to the Union as a state. Baton Rouge continued to have a strategic military location. Between 1819 and 1822, the United States Navy built a base with Barracas, which became a major command post during the Mexico-United States War (1846-1848). Lt. Col. Zachary Taylor oversaw their construction, serving as their commander. In the 1830s, what is now known as Old Arsenal was built.
In 1825, Baton Rouge was visited by Marques de Lafayette as part of his triumphal visit to the United States, being the guest of honor at a banquet in the city. To mark the occasion, the town is renowned for Second Avenue as Lafayette Street.
In 1846, the Louisiana state legislature in New Orleans decided to move the seat of government location to Baton Rouge. As in several other states of the Union, representatives from other parts of Louisiana accused of a concentration of power in the longest city in the state. In 1840, the population of New Orleans was almost 102,000, the fourth largest in the United States. In the same year, the population of Baton Rouge was only 2,269.
Between the 1950s and 1960s, Baton Rouge experienced a boom in the petrochemical industry, causing the city to expand from the original center, resulting in the development of a modern suburban extension. In recent years, the government and business have begun to return to the central district. The construction business had a very important expansion in the 1990s, continuing today, with multi-million dollar projects for improvements in the quality of life throughout the city.
In the 2000s, Baton Rouge has become one of the fastest growing cities in the southern United States in terms of technology. The city's population expanded after Hurricane Katrina as residents of the New Orleans metropolitan area moved because of the devastation. It is estimated that around 200,000 people were displaced to the Baton Rouge area at the end of 2005. Because the victims of Hurricane Katrina returned to their original homes and the city's natives moved to places like Ascension Parish and Livingston Parish, the United States National Census Office nominated Baton Rouge the second largest emigration city during the 2007-2008 estimate. on Rouge is one of the fastest growing U.S. metropolitan areas (less than one million), with 600,000 in 2000 and an estimated 770,000 in 2008.
Geography and climate
Baton Rouge is located at coordinates 30°27′29″N 91°8′25″W / 30.45806, -91.14028 (30.458090, -91.140222 9).
According to the US Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 204.8 km², of which 199 km² is land and 5.7 km² (2.81%) is water.
Baton Rouge, together with Tallahassee and Austin, is one of the capital cities of states that lie most south of the United States.
As in New Orleans, the climate in Baton Rouge is humid-subtropical, with a mild, short, rainy and somewhat hot winter and a long, hot, humid, and sometimes rainy summer. Proximity to the coast exposes the entire metropolitan area to frequent hurricanes. It usually does not snow, although snowfall has occurred in the winters of 2008 (11 December), 2009 (4 December) and 2010 (12 February). Hurricane Gustav has been the worst hurricane in recent history to hit the Baton Rouge area, with winds over 90 mph.
Baton Rouge rarely suffers from natural disasters. Earthquakes are very rare. The Mississippi River is a small threat to most of the city's populated sections, as the city is built on natural steep looking over the river. In any case, areas close to the Amite River and the Committee River are easily flooded if the water rises too much as a result of the rains. Baton Rouge is rarely visited by tornadoes, and the emergence of storms is impossible because it is a distance from the coast.
Tropical storms (and occasionally hurricanes) arrive in the Baton Rouge area with regular force, but massive hurricane damage is usually rare because of the city's situation a bit far from the coastal strip (compared to New Orleans), but a powerful hurricane can cause damage to the area.
Baton Rouge has several neighborhoods inside and outside the city limits:
- Beauregard Town
- Bird Station (Old)
- Bird Station (New)
- Capitol Heights
- Centurion Place
- Country Club of Louisiana
- Eden Park
- Froggy Mo
- Glen Oaks
- Jefferson Terrace
- Lake Beau Pré
- Mall City
- Magnolia Woods
- Mcdonald land
- Melrose Place
- North Gate
- North Sherwood
- Oak Hills Place
- Ogden Park
- Old Hermitage
- Old Jefferson
- Orleans Place
- Parkview Oaks
- Pelican Bay
- Pollard Estates
- River Oaks
- River Oaks East
- Santa Maria
- Sherwood Forest
- South Baton Rouge
- Southern Heights
- Spanish Town
- Stratford Place
- The Field
- The Lake
- University Acres
- University Club
- University Gardens
- University Hills
- University Lakes
- Westdale Heights
- White Oak Landing
- Woodlawn Estates
- Valley Park
- Victoria Gardens
- Village St. George
- Zion City
|Lafayette Heights (under construction)||36|
|Louisiana State Capitol||34||140m|
|Riverfront Office Tower (proposed)||25|
|One American Place||24||94m|
|JPMorgan Chase Tower||21||84m|
|Riverside North Tower||20||80m|
|Marriott Baton Rouge Hotel||22||68m|
|Two City Plaza (approved)||17|
|Gálvez Office Building||12|
|Kirby Smith Hall||13|
|Saint Joseph's Cathedral||50m|
|Louisiana State Office Building||12||49m|
|Torres Bluebonnet (3 residential towers)||12|
|LaSalle Building Office||12|
|Group Shaw Plaza||12|
|Wooddale State Buildings Office||12|
|Hilton Hotel Center||11||40m|
|Baton Rouge Convention and Sheraton Hotel Center||10||38m|
The Baton Rouge River Center is a cultural center that hosts conventions and artistic and sports shows.
The LSU Tigers are the sports team at Louisiana State University. In college American football they won 11 Southeastern Conference championships, six Sugar Bowl and three national championships.
The great Baton Rouge is well served by TV and radio. Coverage is the 93rd largest in the United States, covering 322,540 people or 0.29 percent of the U.S. population.
The area channels are
- 2 WBRZ (ABC)
- 9 WAFB (CBS)
- 21 WBRL (The CW)
- 27 WLPB (PBS)
- 33 WVLA (NBC)
- 39 WBXH (My Network TV)
- 44 WGMB (Fox)
KPBN 11, KZUP 19, WBTR 41, operate independent stations in the area, WLFT channel 30 for mostly religious programming. Other channels with cable stations only include: Metro 21, Cox 4, and Catholic Life Channel 15.
The most widely circulated newspaper is the Baton Rouge Advocate, which has been published since 1925. Other alternatives include weekly publications, which include: 225, LSU Daily Reveille, Tiger Weekly, and Greater Baton Rouge Business Report.
- Classic: WRKF-FM (89.3)
- School: KLSU-FM (91.1)
- Country: WYPY-FM (100.7), WYNK-FM (101.5), WTGE-FM (107.3)
- Contemporary: WQCK-FM (92.7)
- Gospel/Christian: WJFM-FM (88.5), WPAE-FM (89.7), KPAE-FM (91.5), WXOK-AM (1460), WPFC-AM (1550)
- Hits: KRDJ-FM (93.7), WFMF-FM (102.5), WCDV-FM (103.3)
- Jazz: WBRH-FM (90.3)
- Old: KBRH-AM (1260)
- Rock: KRVE-FM (96.1), WDGL-FM (98.1), WNXX-FM (104.5), KNXX-FM (104.9)
- Sports: WSKR-AM (1210)
- Interviews: WJBO-AM (1150), WIBR-AM (1300), WYNK-AM (1380)
- Urban/Contemporary Urban: WEMX-FM (94.1), KQXL-FM (106.5)
- Varied: KAY-AM (1590)
- Contemporary: (KGLA-AM) (1540) Hot Tropical Radio
Health and Medicine
Baton Rouge has the following hospitals:
- Benton Rehabilitation Hospital - 7660 Convention Street
- Baton Rouge General Medical Center - 3600 Florida Boulevard
- Baton Rouge Bluebonnet General Medical Center - 8585 Picardy Avenue
- Earl K. Long Medical Center (LSUMC) - 5825 Airline Highway
- Healthsouth Rehabilitation Hospital - 8595 United Plaza Boulevard
- Healthsouth Surgery Center - 5222 Brittany Drive
- Our Lady Lake Regional Medical Center - 5000 Hennessy Boulevard
- Sage Rehabilitation Hospital - 8225 Summa Avenue
- Saint Jude Children'S Hospital - 7777 Hennessy Boulevard
- Mary Bird Perkins Cancer Treatment Center - 4950 Essen Lane
- Ochsner Medical Center - 1700 Medical Center Drive
- "Vista" Surgery Hospital - 9032 Perkins Road
- Women'S Hospital - 9050 Airline Highway
The East Baton Rouge Parish School System runs public schools in Baton Rouge City, with about 90 schools: 56 elementary schools, 16 middle schools and 18 high schools.
There are some institutions of higher education in the city, such as
- State University of Louisiana
- University of the South
- Baton Rouge Community College
- College Our Lady of the Lake
- Baton Rouge Central Nursing School
- Baton Rouge Central General Technological Radiology School
- Louisiana Technical College (Baton Rouge Campus)
- University of Phoenix (Baton Rouge Campus)
Baton Rouge is connected to the following routes: Interstate 10 (on Horace Wilkinson Bridge), Interstate 12, Interstate 110 (Louisiana) (Rapid Martin Luther King), Airline Highway (US 61), Florida Boulevard (US 190) (on Huey P. Long bridge), Plank Street (LA 67), Nicholson Drive (LA 30), Jefferson (LA 73), Louisiana Road 1 (LA 1) and Scotland/Baker/Zachary Highway (LA 19). US 61/190 business routes run west via Florida Boulevard from Airline Highway to downtown on River Road. Roads also run through River and Chippewa Streets and Scenic Highway from Chippewa to Airline. US 190 meets US 61 on the Airline highway from Florida Boulevard to Scenic Highway, where the two roads join. The US 190 continues west towards the Airline to Huey P. Long bridge from where the US 61 runs off to the Scenic highway.
Public transport is provided by the Capital Area Transit System (CATS). Given the increase in population after Hurricanes Katrina and Rita, New Orleans RTA buses have been introduced in Baton Rouge to supplement this service, which will return to New Orleans on November 30, 2006.
There are plans to create a fast bus system as an extension of Interstate 110 northward, creating a bypass for the Baton Rouge area. There are also plans to extend and add more roads in the area.
- Seimone Augustus, basketball player, guard of the Minnesota Lynx team (n. 1984)
- James H. Brown, former senator of the state, secretary of state, and commissioner of state investment (n. 1,940)
- Billy Cannon, 1959 Heisman Trophy winner (n. 1,937)
- David Dellucci, baseball player, Philadelphia Phillies gardener (n. 1,973)
- Donna Douglas, The Beverly Hillbillies actress (n. 1,933)
- Warrick Dunn, American football player, Atlanta Falcons runner (n. 1,975)
- Jeff Fortenberry, Republican Party representative for Nebraska in Congress (n. 1,960)
- Steve Garbade, composer, cellist and sound designer (n. 1,979)
- Clark Gaudin, lawyer and first state Republican representative of the East Baton Rouge Parish since its reconstruction(n. 1,931)
- Randall Gay, American footballer, corner of the New England Patriots (n. 1982)
- Darryl Hamilton, baseball player, multi-team gardener (n. 1,964)
- Randy Jackson, musician, record producer and jury of the American Idol competition (n. 1956)
- Louis E. Jenkins, former representative of the state of Louisiana and three times candidate for the United States Senate (n. 1,947)
- Chris Thomas King, blues singer and actor (n. 1,962)
- Stephan Kinsella, intellectual property lawyer, propulsion of the legal theory of Libertarians (n. 1,965)
- Lars Kestner, author
- Stefan LeFors, American footballer, Carolina Panthers Field Marshal (n. 1981)
- John A. Lejeune, General of the Marine Corps (n. 1,942)
- Lil Boosie, Hip hop musician (n. 1983)
- Reiley McClendon, actor (n. 1,990)
- Cleo Moore, actress (n. 1,973)
- Stormy Daniels, porn actress (n. 1,979)
- Master P, Hip hop musician, artist and founder and owner of No Limit Records (n. 1,967)
- Jonathan Papelbon, baseball player, Boston Red Sox launcher (n. 1,980)
- Carly Patterson, Olympic gold medalist (n. 1988)
- Bob Pettit, member of the Basketball Fame Walk (n. 1,932)
- Andy Pettitte, baseball player, New York Yankees launcher (n. 1,972)
- Bobby Phills, former professional basketball player (f. 2000)
- Dan Richey, former state legislator and political consultant (n. 1,948)
- Buddy Roemer, former governor of Baton Rouge and businessman (n. 1,943)
- Ben Sheets, baseball player, Milwaukee Brewers launcher (n. 1978)
- Tabby Thomas, blues singer (n. 1,929)
- NBA basketball player Tyrus Thomas, Chicago Bulls (n. 1986)
- Shane West, actor (n. 1978)
- Sister Helen Prejean, Activist Against the Death Penalty (n. 1939).
- Eugene Gilbert Roe Sr., 4th Grade Technician, Easy Company Sanitary, 2nd Battalion, 506th Paratrooper Infantry, 101st Airborne Division, United States Army, World War II (n. 1921 - f. 1998)
- Glen Davis, NBA Player (n. 1986)
- Aix-en-Provence, France
- Córdoba, Mexico
- Taichung, Taiwan
- Port-au-Prince, Haiti
- Malatya, Turkey